The top of the piston is termed the crown and also the sides are called the skirt.
The face on the crown makes up one wall of the combustion chamber and will be a flat or highly contoured surface.
Some pistons contain an indented bowl within the crown, which makes up an oversized percent of the clearance volume.
Pistons are made from forged iron, steel, or aluminum.
Iron and steel pistons can have sharper corners thanks to their higher strength.
They even have lower thermal expansion, which allows for tighter tolerances and fewer crevice volume.
Sometimes synthetic or composite materials are used for the body of the piston, with only the crown fabricated from metal.
Metal rings that fit into circumferential grooves round the piston and form a sliding surface against the cylinder walls.
Near the highest of the piston are usually two or more compression rings fabricated from highly polished hard stainless-steel.
The purpose of those is to create a seal between the piston and cylinder walls and to limit the high-pressure gases within the combustion chamber from leaking past the piston into the crankcase (blowby).
Below the compression rings on the piston is a minimum of one oil ring, which assists in lubricating the cylinder walls and scrapes away excess oil to scale back oil consumption.
Mechanical linkage between the camshaft and valves on overhead valve engines with the camshaft within the crankcase.
Many push rods have oil passages through their length as a part of a pressurized lubrication system.
Liquid-to-air device of honeycomb construction accustomed remove heat from the engine coolant after the engine has been cooled.
The radiator is typically mounted ahead of the engine within the flow of air because the automobile moves forward.
An engine-driven fan is usually wont to increase air flow through the radiator.
Electrical device accustomed initiate combustion in an SI engine by creating a high-voltage discharge across an electrode gap.
Spark plugs are usually product of metal surrounded with ceramic insulation.
Some modern spark plugs have built-in pressure sensors which supply one among the inputs into engine control.
SPEED CONTROL-CRUISE CONTROL
Automatic electric-mechanical system that keeps the auto operating at a continuing speed by controlling engine speed. Starter Several methods are wont to start IC engines.
Most are started by use of an electrical motor (starter) geared to the engine flywheel. Energy is supplied from an electrical battery.
On some very large engines, like those found in large tractors and construction equipment, electric starters have inadequate power, and little IC engines are used as starters for the massive IC engines.
First the tiny engine is started with the traditional motor, then the little engine engages gearing on the flywheel of the big engine, turning it until the massive engine starts.
Early aircraft engines were often started by hand spinning the propeller, which also served because the engine flywheel.
Compressed air is employed to start out some large engines.
Cylinder release valves are opened, which keeps the pressure from increasing within the compression strokes.
Compressed air is then introduced into the cylinders, which rotates the engine in a very free-wheeling mode. When rotating inertia is established, the discharge valves are closed and therefore the engine is fired.
Mechanical compressor powered off of the crankshaft, want to compress incoming air of the engine.
Throttle valve mounted at the upstream end of the intake system, want to control the quantity of air flow into an SI engine.
Some small engines and stationary constant-speed engines haven’t any throttle. Turbocharger Turbine-compressor want to compress incoming air into the engine.
The turbine is powered by the exhaust flow of the engine and thus takes little useful work from the engine.
Used to allow flow into and out of the cylinder at the correct time within the cycle.
Valves are mostly product of forged steel.
Surfaces against which valves close are called valve seats and are manufactured from hardened steel or ceramic.
Many two-stroke cycle engines have ports (slots) within the side of the cylinder walls rather than mechanical valves.
Water jacket System of liquid flow passages surrounding the cylinders, usually constructed as a part of the block and head.
Engine coolant flows through the vessel and keeps the cylinder walls from overheating.
The coolant is sometimes a water-ethylene glycol mixture.
Pump accustomed circulate engine coolant through the engine and radiator.
It is usually mechanically got away of the engine.
Pin fastening the rod to the piston (also called the piston pin).