The health belief model(HBM) is the complete planning of trying and predicting health behavior. It was first created in 1950. After 30 years in 1980, it was updated by scientists. Scientists created it with a psychological view. Eating reflects a person’s willingness by which he can change his health behavior.
This is primarily time due to his health perceptions. This model is mainly a theoretical model. Scientists added some effective theories in this model so that one can Gain health promotion. Not only health promotion but also he can continue diseases prevention programs.
We can understand ones’ health behavior by this model. And it is the most effective and popular model of all.
People often fail to adopt disease prevention systems. Sometimes the screaming test to detect the diseases also fails. In order to provide these services the health belief model is used. Again sometimes patients don’t respond properly to their symptoms. Then Doctors can’t provide medical treatments.
Then they take help from this model. This is the secondary or the later uses of the health belief model. This model suggests one to believe in personal health and the threat of illness and diseases.
It also helps to believe in the effectiveness of the treatments taken from any doctor or physicist. It can prevent the ability to gain healthy behavior.
The HBM comes from some theories based on psychology and behavior. There are a lot of theories in this model. But the fundamental elements of this model are rare. There are two fundamental elements in this model. They are totally health-related.
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- The expectation is to avoid illness or getting well if someone is already ill.
- The belief is that proper health action or treatment will provide wellness and will prevent our illness.
Ultimately it’s like a health course. This course teaches us the relation of health behavior with the acumen of the benefits and berries. Scientists researched deeply About the model. They give their opinions in various ways. At last, they all selected a specific contribution.
They divided the constructs of HBM into six types. These six types are divided into two parts. The first four constructs are about the development as an original tenet of the HBM. The next two are HBM related research.
- Perceived Susceptibility: Perceived susceptibility means a feeling or an advanced idea or a personal realization of a person that it is an illness or gaining the risk about health. We can feel when we are ill or our illness comes. different people feel different ways. There is a big or personal variation in a persons’ feelings.
- Perceived Severity: Perceived severity means the feelings of the seriousness of alert an illness or disease. It has also variations. Most of the time a person considers the result of treatment, social consequences to assess severity.
- Perceived Benefits: Perceived benefits mean the realization of a person about the benefits of effectiveness to prevent the health risk. When we feel our illness we can take action against it by this course. Because our first symptom of any disease is feelings. And so we can realise our illness.
- Perceived barriers: Perceived barriers mean a person’s feelings on the chain to act a suggested health activity. We also can see the variation in persons’ barriers. The person feels the illness but he can’t express it. He thinks it is expensive, dangerous, unpleasant, or inconvenient.
- Cue to action: Cue to action refers to feelings of suggested health activity. When someone feels that he is suggested to do these health actions he decides to do it. And this is due to the action. These feelings may be internal such as chest pain wheezing etc. Again It may be external like the illness of family members.
- Self Efficacy: Self-efficacy means the Confidence level of a person. It refers to his or her ability. Self-efficacy indicates how successfully performed a behavior. The first time this option wasn’t a part of the health belief model. It was added most recently in 1980or the mid of 1980. Self-efficacy is directly related to the performance of desired behavior.
There are also some limitations of the health belief model. These limitations affect public health. Some most resalable limitations are:
- Every person has his own attitudes, beliefs, or determinants. But this HBM model hasn’t accounted for person attitudes, beliefs, or any other determinants.
- It doesn’t justify behavioral habits in the same case it can inform decision-making systems to take suggested steps. As they get the social priority it doesn’t justify unhealthy behavior like smoking.
- It imagines that everyone has the same data about illness.
HBM Is a highly descriptive model. Though it has some limitations it is an effective model for all. It’s a great part of the health community.